PNT Solution Definition
PNT Solution comes from Positioning, Navigation, and Timing which represents the method of finding the location and speed of a standstill or moving object on a specified coordinate system applying radio signals, inertial sensors, astronomical or geographical and topographical information.
The Oxford Dictionary defines ‘navigation’ as ‘a method of planning or determining the location and moving route of a ship or airplane using radio signals or astronomical/geographical information. Thus, ‘navigation’ can be defined as 1)determining the location and speed of a moving object and 2)planning and maintaining the route of the move from one location to a different location. Therefore, the essential part of ‘navigation’ is to determine the location and speed of the moving object.
Determining the location and speed of the moving object can be classified into three parts.
|- Dead Reckoning or Deduced Reckoning|
A method to calculate the current position using the moving speed and direction information starting from a known position. The INS(Inertial Navigation System) is a representative example of the triaxial dead-reckoning navigation system using the inertial sensors
|- Position Fixing|
A representative example of the Position Fixing navigation system is the GPS(Global Positioning System) determining the current position and time with external signals such as radio signals transmitted from the satellite.
|- Data Comparison|
A navigation system comparing the measured video signals, altitude information gravity field or magnetic field signals with the previously collected database of topographical/geographical information or gravity field/magnetic field signals.
We already have diverse forms of PNT Solutions applied around us within various transportation means such as aircrafts & ships as well as various high-tech weapons systems including car navigators and mobile communication systems.
Navigation System Technology Classification
Radio Navigation System
|Terrestrial Navigation System|
|Short-range||VOR, ILS, MLS, DME|
|Long-range||LORAN, Omega (until 1997), DECCA (until 2000)|
|Satellite Navigation System|
|Historical System||TRANSIT(USA), Timation(USA)|
|Operational System||Beidou(China), DORIS(France), GLONASS(RUSSIA), GPS(USA)|
|Augmentation System||EGNOS, GAGAN, LAAS, WAAS, MSAS, GPS-C, StarFire|
|Developmental System||Beidou2(China), Galileo(EU), IRNSS(India), QZSS(Japan)|
- VOR: VHF Omni-directional Range, ILS: Instrument Landing System, MLS: Microwave Landing System
- DME: Distance Measuring Equipment, LORAN: Long Range Navigation, QZSS: Quasi-Zenith Satellite System
- EGNOS: European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, GAGAN: GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation
- MSAS: Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System, IRNSS: Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System
- DORIS: Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite
PNT Application Areas
* from the National Positioning, Navigation, & Timing Architecture Study Final Report (2008)